A modification on the proxy object also will result in a corresponding modification on the remote object.
An API approach is an architectural approach that revolves around providing a program interface to a set of services to different applications serving different types of consumers. An example might be a shipping company API that can be added to an eCommerce-focused website to facilitate ordering shipping services and automatically include current shipping rates, without the site developer having to enter the shipper's rate table into a web database.
While "web API" historically virtually has been synonymous for web service , the recent trend so-called Web 2. In this way, content that is created in one place dynamically can be posted and updated to multiple locations on the web. The design of an API has significant impact on its usage. APIs are one of the more common ways technology companies integrate with each other. Those that provide and use APIs are considered as being members of a business ecosystem.
The main policies for releasing an API are: An important factor when an API becomes public is its "interface stability".
Changes by a developer to a part of it—for example adding new parameters to a function call—could break compatibility with clients that depend on that API. When parts of a publicly presented API are subject to change and thus not stable, such parts of a particular API should be documented explicitly as "unstable". For example, in the Google Guava library, the parts that are considered unstable, and that might change in the near future, are marked with the Java annotation Beta.
A public API can sometimes declare parts of itself as deprecated or rescinded. This usually means that part of the API should be considered a candidate for being removed, or modified in a backward incompatible way. Therefore, these changes allows developers to transition away from parts of the API that will be removed or not supported in the future.
For any library with a significant user base, as soon as an element becomes part of the public API, it starts being used in diverse ways. API documentation describes what services an API offers and how to use those services, aiming to cover everything a client would need to know for practical purposes.
Documentation is crucial for the development and maintenance of applications using the API. Traditional documentation files are often presented via a documentation system, such as Javadoc or Pydoc , that has a consistent appearance and structure. In the interest of clarity, API documentation may include a description of classes and methods in the API as well as "typical usage scenarios, code snippets, design rationales, performance discussions, and contracts", but implementation details of the API services themselves are usually omitted.
Restrictions and limitations on how the API can be used are also covered by the documentation. For instance, documentation for an API function could note that its parameters cannot be null, that the function itself is not thread safe ,  or that a decrement and cancel protocol averts self-trading. API documentation can be enriched with metadata information like Java annotations. This metadata can be used by the compiler, tools, and by the run-time environment to implement custom behaviors or custom handling.
It is possible to generate API documentation in data-driven manner. By observing a large number of programs that use a given API, it is possible to infer the typical usages, as well the required contracts and directives. In , Oracle Corporation sued Google for having distributed a new implementation of Java embedded in the Android operating system. Judge William Alsup ruled in the Oracle v. Google case that APIs cannot be copyrighted in the U. S, and that a victory for Oracle would have widely expanded copyright protection and allowed the copyrighting of simple software commands:.
To accept Oracle's claim would be to allow anyone to copyright one version of code to carry out a system of commands and thereby bar all others from writing its own different versions to carry out all or part of the same commands. In , however, Alsup's ruling was overturned on appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit , though the question of whether such use of APIs constitutes fair use was left unresolved.
In , following a two-week trial, a jury determined that Google's reimplementation of the Java API constituted fair use, but Oracle vowed to appeal the decision. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see API disambiguation. Main article: Web API. Oracle America, Inc. Google, Inc. Main category: Application programming interfaces.
Retrieved 29 July Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 2 August Linux Foundation.
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Jeff Retrieved 16 June August The New Generation of Web Applications". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 26 July Association for Computing Machinery. Retrieved 8 August Advances in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. The consistent evaluation of speech synthesis systems may be difficult because of a lack of universally agreed objective evaluation criteria. Different organizations often use different speech data. The quality of speech synthesis systems also depends on the quality of the production technique which may involve analogue or digital recording and on the facilities used to replay the speech.
Evaluating speech synthesis systems has therefore often been compromised by differences between production techniques and replay facilities. Since , however, some researchers have started to evaluate speech synthesis systems using a common speech dataset. A study in the journal Speech Communication by Amy Drahota and colleagues at the University of Portsmouth , UK , reported that listeners to voice recordings could determine, at better than chance levels, whether or not the speaker was smiling. One of the related issues is modification of the pitch contour of the sentence, depending upon whether it is an affirmative, interrogative or exclamatory sentence.
One of the techniques for pitch modification  uses discrete cosine transform in the source domain linear prediction residual. Such pitch synchronous pitch modification techniques need a priori pitch marking of the synthesis speech database using techniques such as epoch extraction using dynamic plosion index applied on the integrated linear prediction residual of the voiced regions of speech.
It included the SP Narrator speech synthesizer chip on a removable cartridge. The Narrator had 2kB of Read-Only Memory ROM , and this was utilized to store a database of generic words that could be combined to make phrases in Intellivision games. Since the Orator chip could also accept speech data from external memory, any additional words or phrases needed could be stored inside the cartridge itself. The data consisted of strings of analog-filter coefficients to modify the behavior of the chip's synthetic vocal-tract model, rather than simple digitized samples.
Also released in , Software Automatic Mouth was the first commercial all-software voice synthesis program. It was later used as the basis for Macintalk. The Apple version preferred additional hardware that contained DACs, although it could instead use the computer's one-bit audio output with the addition of much distortion if the card was not present.
The audible output is extremely distorted speech when the screen is on. The Commodore 64 made use of the 64's embedded SID audio chip. The Atari ST computers were sold with "stspeech. The first speech system integrated into an operating system that shipped in quantity was Apple Computer 's MacInTalk. This January demo required kilobytes of RAM memory. As a result, it could not run in the kilobytes of RAM the first Mac actually shipped with. In the early s Apple expanded its capabilities offering system wide text-to-speech support. With the introduction of faster PowerPC-based computers they included higher quality voice sampling.
Apple also introduced speech recognition into its systems which provided a fluid command set. More recently, Apple has added sample-based voices. Starting as a curiosity, the speech system of Apple Macintosh has evolved into a fully supported program, PlainTalk , for people with vision problems. During Starting with VoiceOver voices feature the taking of realistic-sounding breaths between sentences, as well as improved clarity at high read rates over PlainTalk. Mac OS X also includes say , a command-line based application that converts text to audible speech.
The AppleScript Standard Additions includes a say verb that allows a script to use any of the installed voices and to control the pitch, speaking rate and modulation of the spoken text. The second operating system to feature advanced speech synthesis capabilities was AmigaOS , introduced in It featured a complete system of voice emulation for American English, with both male and female voices and "stress" indicator markers, made possible through the Amiga 's audio chipset. AmigaOS also featured a high-level " Speak Handler ", which allowed command-line users to redirect text output to speech.
Speech synthesis was occasionally used in third-party programs, particularly word processors and educational software. The synthesis software remained largely unchanged from the first AmigaOS release and Commodore eventually removed speech synthesis support from AmigaOS 2. Despite the American English phoneme limitation, an unofficial version with multilingual speech synthesis was developed. This made use of an enhanced version of the translator library which could translate a number of languages, given a set of rules for each language.
SAPI 4. Windows added Narrator , a text—to—speech utility for people who have visual impairment. Third-party programs such as JAWS for Windows, Window-Eyes, Non-visual Desktop Access, Supernova and System Access can perform various text-to-speech tasks such as reading text aloud from a specified website, email account, text document, the Windows clipboard, the user's keyboard typing, etc.
Speech Application Programming Interface
Not all programs can use speech synthesis directly. Third-party programs are available that can read text from the system clipboard. Microsoft Speech Server is a server-based package for voice synthesis and recognition. It is designed for network use with web applications and call centers. Speech synthesizers were offered free with the purchase of a number of cartridges and were used by many TI-written video games notable titles offered with speech during this promotion were Alpiner and Parsec.
The synthesizer uses a variant of linear predictive coding and has a small in-built vocabulary. The original intent was to release small cartridges that plugged directly into the synthesizer unit, which would increase the device's built in vocabulary. However, the success of software text-to-speech in the Terminal Emulator II cartridge cancelled that plan.
Text-to-Speech TTS refers to the ability of computers to read text aloud. A TTS Engine converts written text to a phonemic representation, then converts the phonemic representation to waveforms that can be output as sound. TTS engines with different languages, dialects and specialized vocabularies are available through third-party publishers. Version 1. Currently, there are a number of applications , plugins and gadgets that can read messages directly from an e-mail client and web pages from a web browser or Google Toolbar.
Some specialized software can narrate RSS-feeds. On one hand, online RSS-narrators simplify information delivery by allowing users to listen to their favourite news sources and to convert them to podcasts. Users can download generated audio files to portable devices, e. A growing field in Internet based TTS is web-based assistive technology , e. It can deliver TTS functionality to anyone for reasons of accessibility, convenience, entertainment or information with access to a web browser.
The non-profit project Pediaphon was created in to provide a similar web-based TTS interface to the Wikipedia. Some open-source software systems are available, such as:. With the introduction of Adobe Voco audio editing and generating software prototype slated to be part of the Adobe Creative Suite and the similarly enabled DeepMind WaveNet , a deep neural network based audio synthesis software from Google  speech synthesis is verging on being completely indistinguishable from a real human's voice.
Adobe Voco takes approximately 20 minutes of the desired target's speech and after that it can generate sound-alike voice with even phonemes that were not present in the training material. The software poses ethical concerns as it allows to steal other peoples voices and manipulate them to say anything desired. This increases the stress on the disinformation situation coupled with the facts that. A number of markup languages have been established for the rendition of text as speech in an XML -compliant format. Although each of these was proposed as a standard, none of them have been widely adopted.
Speech synthesis markup languages are distinguished from dialogue markup languages. VoiceXML , for example, includes tags related to speech recognition, dialogue management and touchtone dialing, in addition to text-to-speech markup. Speech synthesis has long been a vital assistive technology tool and its application in this area is significant and widespread.
It allows environmental barriers to be removed for people with a wide range of disabilities. The longest application has been in the use of screen readers for people with visual impairment , but text-to-speech systems are now commonly used by people with dyslexia and other reading difficulties as well as by pre-literate children.
They are also frequently employed to aid those with severe speech impairment usually through a dedicated voice output communication aid. Speech synthesis techniques are also used in entertainment productions such as games and animations. In , Animo Limited announced the development of a software application package based on its speech synthesis software FineSpeech, explicitly geared towards customers in the entertainment industries, able to generate narration and lines of dialogue according to user specifications. Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 characters.
In recent years, Text to Speech for disability and handicapped communication aids have become widely deployed in Mass Transit. Text to Speech is also finding new applications outside the disability market. For example, speech synthesis, combined with speech recognition , allows for interaction with mobile devices via natural language processing interfaces.
Text-to speech is also used in second language acquisition. Voki, for instance, is an educational tool created by Oddcast that allows users to create their own talking avatar, using different accents. They can be emailed, embedded on websites or shared on social media. In addition, speech synthesis is a valuable computational aid for the analysis and assessment of speech disorders. A voice quality synthesizer, developed by Jorge C. Lucero et al. For mobile app development, Android operating system has been offering text to speech API for a long time.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Speech-generating device. Automatic announcement.
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A synthetic voice announcing an arriving train in Sweden. Main article: Concatenative synthesis. Prosody linguistics. Microsoft Agent. Speech synthesis portal. Chinese speech synthesis Comparison of screen readers Comparison of speech synthesizers Euphonia device Orca assistive technology Paperless office Speech processing Speech-generating device Silent speech interface Text to speech in digital television.
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Telephony Application Programming Interface
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Speech recognition - Wikipedia
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